e-beam lithography


George Papageorgiou was born in Athens in 1978. He received his BSc in physics in 1999 (Queen Mary University of London) and his PhD in physics in 2004 (Royal Holloway, University of London). During his PhD research he acquired experience in low temperature experimental practices (Millikelvin Laboratory, London) and micro-/nano- fabrication processes (C.E.A, Paris). Results from an experimental investigation assessing the feasibility of entrapment, confinement and control of small numbers of two-dimensional electrons above the surface of liquid helium, in quantum wells at temperatures down to 150mK, were presented in his thesis, entitled “Counting Electrons on Helium with a Single Electron Tunneling Transistor”. Pinned electrons on helium have the potential for becoming physical implementations of quantum bits, as suggested by theorists Platzman and Dykman in Science, in 1999.

In 2014 he was employed by the National Research Center "Demokritos" and became member of staff (Functional Scientific Personnel) in 2018. He is currently responsible for the operation of the high resolution electron beam lithography (EBL) system Raith EBPG-5000+, which is installed at the Nanotechnology and Microsystems Laboratory (NML) of the Institute of Nanosciences and Nanotechology (INN). His work is focused on the realisation of lithographic process requests using EBL, in conjunction with associated clean room pattern transfer processes. He has co-authored 14 journal publications with over 200 citations.


Angelopoulou, M., Petrou, P.S., Raptis, I., Misiakos, K., Livaniou, E., Makarona, E. and Kakabakos, S., Rapid detection of mozzarella and feta cheese adulteration with cow milk through a silicon photonic immunosensor Analyst, Volume 146, Pages: 529-537, 2021 [doi]

Geka, G., Papageorgiou, G., Chatzichristidi, M., Karydas, A.G., Psycharis, V. and Makarona, E., Cuo/pmma polymer nanocomposites as novel resist materials for e‐beam lithography Nanomaterials, Volume 11, Pages: 1-22, Article Number: 762, 2021 [doi]

Papageorgiou, G.P., Karydas, A.G., Papageorgiou, G., Kantarelou, V. and Makarona, E., Controlled synthesis of periodic arrays of ZnO nanostructures combining e-beam lithography and solution-based processes leveraged by micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy Micro and Nano Engineering, Volume 8, Article Number: 100063, 2020 [doi]

Misiakos, K., Makarona, E., Hoekman, M., Fyrogenis, R., Tukkiniemi, K., Jobst, G., Petrou, P.S., Kakabakos, S.E., Salapatas, A., Goustouridis, D., Harjanne, M., Heimala, P. and Raptis, I., All-Silicon Spectrally Resolved Interferometric Circuit for Multiplexed Diagnostics: A Monolithic Lab-on-a-Chip Integrating All Active and Passive Components ACS Photonics, Volume 6, Pages: 1694-1705, 2019 [doi]

Carbone, M.G.P., Tsoukleri, G., Manikas, A.C., Makarona, E., Tsamis, C. and Galiotis, C., Production and mechanical characterization of graphene micro-ribbons Journal of Composites Science, Volume 3, Article Number: 42, 2019 [doi]

Botsi, S., Tsamis, C., Chatzichristidi, M., Papageorgiou, G. and Makarona, E., Facile and cost-efficient development of PMMA-based nanocomposites with custom-made hydrothermally-synthesized ZnO nanofillers Nano-Structures and Nano-Objects, Volume 17, Pages: 7-20, 2019 [doi]

Botzakaki, M.A., Skoulatakis, G., Xanthopoulos, N., Gianneta, V., Travlos, A., Kennou, S., Ladas, S., Tsamis, C., Makarona, E., Georga, S.N. and Krontiras, C.A., Influence of the atomic layer deposition temperature on the structural and electrical properties of Al/Al2O3/p-Ge MOS structures Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces and Films, Volume 36, Article Number: 01A120, 2018 [doi]

Petrou, P., Makarona, E., Kakabakos, S., Koukouvinos, G., Misiakos, K. and Raptis, I., Interferometry-based immunoassays Pages: 241-271, 2018 [doi]

Pagkali, V., Petrou, P.S., Makarona, E., Peters, J., Haasnoot, W., Jobst, G., Moser, I., Gajos, K., Budkowski, A., Economou, A., Misiakos, K., Raptis, I. and Kakabakos, S.E., Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and deoxynivalenol in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 359, Pages: 445-453, 2018 [doi]

Angelopoulou, M., Petrou, P.S., Makarona, E., Haasnoot, W., Moser, I., Jobst, G., Goustouridis, D., Lees, M., Kalatzi, K., Raptis, I., Misiakos, K. and Kakabakos, S.E., Ultrafast Multiplexed-Allergen Detection through Advanced Fluidic Design and Monolithic Interferometric Silicon Chips Analytical Chemistry, Volume 90, Pages: 9559-9567, 2018 [doi]

Pagkali, V., Petrou, P.S., Salapatas, A., Makarona, E., Peters, J., Haasnoot, W., Jobst, G., Economou, A., Misiakos, K., Raptis, I. and Kakabakos, S.E., Detection of ochratoxin A in beer samples with a label-free monolithically integrated optoelectronic biosensor Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 323, Pages: 75-83, 2017 [doi]

Niarchos, G., Dubourg, G., Afroudakis, G., Georgopoulos, M., Tsouti, V., Makarona, E., Crnojevic-Bengin, V. and Tsamis, C., Humidity sensing properties of paper substrates and their passivation with ZnO nanoparticles for sensor applications Sensors (Switzerland), Volume 17, Article Number: 516, 2017 [doi]

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