Water purification employing dendritic polymers
Dendritic polymers came to the fore in the last 20 years and opened up new horizons to applications requiring, among others, outstanding adsorption properties. In this context, nanomaterials deriving from these tree-shaped structures were examined as potential solutions for the elimination of a variety of water pollutants.1-4 Dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers with octyl or octadecyl chains form films by evaporation of their chloroform solutions and adsorb polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pyrene, fluoranthene, phenanthrene) to the level of few ppb.5-6 Further alternative routes include chemical bonding, cross-linking that immobilizes dendritic polymers on porous substrates and β-cyclodextrin siloxane derivatives impregnated in different porous ceramic materials (Al2O3, SiC, TiO2)7-9 and biomimetic formation of ceramic nano-shells around the dendritic adsorbent.10 Continuous filtration experiments for PAH, BTX, MTBE and pesticides reveal the quantitative superiority of dendritic polymers and highlight the importance of the contact time of the polluted water with the organic nanosponges.11
1. M. Arkas, D. Tsiourvas, C. M. Paleos, Functional dendritic polymers for the development of hybrid materials for water purification, Macromolecular Materials and Engineering, 2010, 295, 883-898.
2. D. Tsiourvas, M. Arkas, C. M. Paleos, Organic/Inorganic hybrid materials based on functional dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers for water purification, in “Water Treatment Processes”, Ed. Kostas Demadis, Chapter 13, pp. 333-356, 2013 Nova Science Publishers, New York.
3. M. Arkas, K. Panagiotaki, I. Kitsou, F. Petrakli, F. Dendritic polymer—enhanced ultrafiltration. In Nanoscale Materials in Water Purification. 2019, Chapter 5, pp. 111-152, Elsevier.
4. M. Douloudi, E. Nikoli, T. Katsika, M. Vardavoulias, M. Arkas, Dendritic polymers as promising additives for the manufacturing of hybrid organoceramic nanocomposites with ameliorated properties suitable for an extensive diversity of applications. Nanomaterials, 2021, 11, 19. DOI:10.3390/nano11010019.
5. M. Arkas, D. Tsiourvas, C. M. Paleos, Functional dendrimeric nanosponges for the removal of polycyclic aromatics hydrocarbons from water. Chem. Mater. 2003, 15, 2844-2847.
6. M. Arkas, C. M. Paleos, L. Eleades, D. Tsiourvas, Alkylated hyperbranched polymers as molecular nanosponges for the purification of water from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2005, 97, 2299-2305.
7. M. Arkas, C. M. Paleos, and D. Tsiourvas, Organosilicon dendritic networks in porous ceramics for water purification, Chem. Mater. 2005, 17, 3439-3444.
8. M. Arkas ,R. Allabashi, D. Tsiourvas, E.-M. Mattausch , R. Perfler, Organic/inorganic hybrid filters based on dendritic and cyclodextrin nanosponges for the removal of organic pollutants from water, Environ. Sci. Techol. 2006, 40, 2771-2777.
9. R. Allabashi, M. Arkas, D. Tsiourvas, G. Hörmann, Removal of some organic pollutants in water employing ceramic membranes impregnated with cross-linked silylated dendritic and cyclodextrin polymers, Water Res. 2007, 41, 476-486.
10. M. Arkas, D. Tsiourvas, Organic/inorganic hybrid nanospheres based on hyperbranched poly(ethylene imine) encapsulated into silica for the sorption of toxic metal ions and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from water, J. Hazard. Mater. 2009, 170, 35-42.
11. A. Tsetsekou, M. Arkas, A. Kritikaki, S. Simonetis, D. Tsiourvas, Optimization of hybrid hyperbranched polymer/ceramic filters for the efficient absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons from water, J. Membrane Sci., 2008, 311, 128-135.